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聊城职院:以“新旧动能转换”助推产教深度融合

2019-09-21 13:35 来源:中华网

  聊城职院:以“新旧动能转换”助推产教深度融合

  澳门威尼斯人网站  作者:莫世健澳门大学法学院讲座教授、研究生院院长  保时捷销售与市场执行委员会成员DetlevvonPlaten说:JensPuttfarcken曾经从事过不同的管理类工作,拥有相当丰富的销售经验。

其中包括C级轿车(如Golf,Civic)和经济实惠的A级轿车(如Fiat500,VWUp)。  按照Nectome的设想,为了保存最完整的大脑,需要把将要离世的人固定在一个人工心肺机上,麻醉之后,把能让蛋白质变性的戊二醛从颈动脉输送进大脑,替换血管里的血液;然后缓慢地添加抗冻剂乙二醇;最后在经过6个小时左右的灌流后取脑。

    第三局天津队由李莹主打接应,但0-2、2-4落后的上海两度靠天津的自失扳平比分。  过去五年,脱贫攻坚取得决定性进展,形成强投入、多举措、全方位的大扶贫格局。

    22日在巴黎颁授的这一奖项,由联合国教科文组织与欧莱雅基金会1998年设立,每年表彰全球五位为科学进步做出卓越贡献的女性。人的一生大约有1/3的时间是在睡眠中度过的。

  戴假胡须、身着男装、束胸宽衣、手执权杖、威严无比,这就是古埃及最有权力的女法老的一贯装束。

    情况2  苹果用户比安卓用户价格高?  目前,大家的手机一般分为两个阵营,分别是苹果iOS系统和安卓系统。

  在奇点到来之际,机器将能通过人工智能进行自我完善,超越人类,从而开启一个新的时代。如果你有足够精力,就算从早滑到晚整整一个星期,也还没见识到所有雪道呢。

    广州日报全媒体记者温俊华编译  今年1月,Nectome公司的创始人麦金太尔和麦坎纳雇了一名病理学家,在俄勒冈州的波特兰租住了几周,等待购买一具新鲜的尸体。

  此后不久,美国另一大运营商Verizon也终止了华为手机的销售。  留学基金委还提醒计划申请赴澳留学人员提前做好留学规划,了解澳洲签证政策,谨慎选择留学国别及留学单位。

    对于一些地方在执行国家政策时的走偏问题,何立峰表示要不断强化监督检查。

  澳门威尼斯人网站一位网友表示,自己在某在线旅游平台订机票,选好的那班每次看时价格都会上浮;而当自己选好该机票后取消,再选那个机票时,价格立刻上涨甚至翻倍,在自己觉得不买会更贵而匆忙下单后,发现该航班价格又恢复到最初的低价。

  而所有408型签证申请者都要接受安全审查。中兴通讯终端公司CEO程立新当日在接受采访时称,公司经过深刻研究,决定在中国要加强公开市场的投入,做长期的投入,未来三年中兴通讯要成为国内主流手机品牌。

  澳门威尼斯人网站 澳门威尼斯人注册 澳门威尼斯人下注

  聊城职院:以“新旧动能转换”助推产教深度融合

 
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Programmable CSF Shunt Valves: Radiographic Identification a
2019-09-21 来源:网络整理

SUMMARY: The programmable CSF shunt valve has become an important tool in hydrocephalus treatment, particularly in the NPH population and in pediatric patients with complex hydrocephalus. The purpose of this study is to provide a single reference for the identification of programmable shunt valves and the interpretation of programmable shunt valve settings. Four major manufacturers of programmable shunts agreed to participate in this study. Each provided radiographic images and legends for their appropriate interpretation. Issues of MR imaging compatibility for each valve are also discussed.

AbbreviationsH   high   L   low   M   medium   NPH   normal pressure hydrocephalus   P/L   performance levels  

Hydrocephalus affects between 1% and 2% of the population. It accounts for 70,000 hospital admissions annually and the placement of between 18,000 and 33,000 CSF shunts in the United States each year. Because one-third of all shunts fail within 1 year of placement and the manifestations of shunt failure are protean, patients with shunts frequently undergo radiographic evaluation. These evaluations include not only cross-sectional imaging with CT and MR imaging but also plain radiographs of the shunt system.

Most CSF shunts consist of 3 components: a ventricular catheter, a valve, and a distal catheter. A shunt is a completely internalized system, as opposed to an external ventricular drain in which a ventricular catheter drains to a collection system at the bedside. The catheter components of a shunt are made from Silastic (Dow Corning, Midland, Michigan), a form of rubber tubing resistant to breakdown in the body. They are frequently impregnated with radiopaque material to aid in their radiographic visualization. The ventricular catheter sits within 1 of the ventricular spaces in the brain, most commonly the right lateral ventricle. The ventricular catheter is connected to a valve that regulates flow. To counter a siphoning effect associated with upright posture, many shunt systems also include an antisiphon device; this reduces overdrainage when the patient is standing.

Historically, shunt valves permitted a fixed amount of CSF drainage. This required the surgeon to select a specific valve for implantation, and if overdrainage or underdrainage resulted, a second operation was required to change the valve. The programmable valve is an important advancement in shunt technology. It provides the option of changing the opening pressure of the valve transcutaneously, most commonly with a device using a coded magnetic field. Although most valves placed in the United States are still fixed-pressure valves, the programmable valve has become an important tool in hydrocephalus treatment, particularly in the NPH population and in pediatric patients with complex hydrocephalus.

Patients with NPH often require multiple adjustments of opening pressure to optimize cognitive function and gait stability, while avoiding overdrainage and the secondary subdural effusion. Other patients with hydrocephalus have a very narrow therapeutic window between symptomatic overdrainage and symptomatic underdrainage. Because programmable valves allow noninvasive fine tuning of the opening pressure in these difficult patient populations, their use is increasing. While the dependability and relatively low cost of fixed-pressure valves will likely ensure their continued use, the programmable valve is now an important established tool in the treatment of hydrocephalus. It is important to be aware of the impact of the programmable valve on patient management and, specifically, of the altered significance of ventricular size change in these patients.

The purpose of this study was to provide a single reference containing radiographic depictions of the major programmable shunt valves in current use as well as information for accurate reporting of shunt valve settings. This will assist radiologists and other physicians in the complete assessment of skull radiographs in patients with shunts. We have also consolidated the current recommendations of the manufacturers regarding MR imaging compatibility of these valves.

Materials and Methods

Major shunt manufacturers were contacted and asked to participate in this study. Four companies currently producing ≥1 programmable shunt valve agreed to participate: Aesculap (Tuttlingen, Germany), Codman/Johnson & Johnson (Raynham, Massachusetts), Medtronic (Minneapolis, Minnesota), and Sophysa (Orsay, France). The manufacturers provided photographs and plain radiographs of programmable shunt valves in current production as well as the appropriate legends describing the appearance of the valves at various settings. As of this date, these are the most commonly used programmable shunt valves in the United States. Each participating manufacturer provided written permission to publish the images herein.

Results

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